The Scrypt algorithm takes several input parameters and produces the derived key as output:
key = Scrypt(password, salt, N, r, p, derived-key-len)
The Scrypt config parameters are:
N– iterations count (affects memory and CPU usage), e.g. 16384 or 2048
r– block size (affects memory and CPU usage), e.g. 8
p– parallelism factor (threads to run in parallel - affects the memory, CPU usage), usually 1
password– the input password (8-10 chars minimal length is recommended)
salt– securely-generated random bytes (64 bits minimum, 128 bits recommended)
derived-key-length- how many bytes to generate as output, e.g. 32 bytes (256 bits)
The memory in Scrypt is accessed in strongly dependent order at each step, so the memory access speed is the algorithm's bottleneck. The memory required to compute Scrypt key derivation is calculated as follows:
Memory required = 128 * N * r * p bytes
Example: e.g. 128 * N * r * p = 128 * 16384 * 8 * 1 = 16 MB (or 128 * N * r * p = 128 * 2048 * 8 * 1 = 2 MB)
Choosing parameters depends on how much you want to wait and what level of security (password cracking resistance) do you want to achieve:
- Sample parameters for interactive login: N=16384, r=8, p=1 (RAM = 2 MB). For interactive login you most probably do not want to wait more than a 0.5 seconds, so the computations should be very slow. Also at the server side, it is usual that many users can login in the same time, so slow Scrypt computation will slow down the entire system.
- Sample parameters for file encryption: N=1048576, r=8, p=1 (RAM = 1 GB). When you encrypt your hard drive, you will unlock the encrypted data in rare cases, usually not more than 2-3 times per day, so you may want to wait for 2-3 seconds to increase the security.
You can perform tests and choose the Scrypt parameters yourself during the design and development of your app or system. Always try to use the fastest possible implementation of Scrypt for your language and platform, because crackers will definitely use it. Some implementations (e.g. in Python) may be 100 times slower than the fastest ones!
In the MyEtherWallet crypto wallet, the default Scrypt parameters are N=8192, r=8, p=1. These settings are not strong enough for crypto wallets, but this is how it works. The solution is to use long and complex password to avoid password cracking attacks.
Now, we shall write some code in Python to derive a key from a password using the Scrypt algorithm.
First, install the Python package
scryptusing the command:
pip install scrypt
Note that the
scryptpackage depends on OpenSSL, so first install it in its default location (e.g. in
C:\OpenSSL-Win64in Windows), then install the scrypt Python package.
Now, after the
scryptpackage is successfully installed, write the Python code to calculate a Scrypt hash: (Note, we have chosen smaller number for iterations count. We did that just to increase the following example execution speed. In common usage, a higher iterations count is recommended, e.g. 16384 - see above.)
salt = b'aa1f2d3f4d23ac44e9c5a6c3d8f9ee8c'
passwd = b'[email protected]$Sw0rD~7'
key = pyscrypt.hash(passwd, salt, 2048, 8, 1, 32)
print("Derived key:", key.hex())
The Scrypt calculation function takes several input parameters: the password (bytes sequence), the salt (bytes sequence), iterations count, block size for each iteration, parallelism factor and the output key length (number of bytes for the derived key).
The output from the above code execution is the following:
Derived key: b'e813a6f6ccc4e9110193bf9efb7c0a489d76655f9e36629dccbeaf2a73bc0c6f'
Try to change the number of iterations or the block size and see how they affect the execution time. Have in mind that the above Python implementation is not very fast. You may find fast Scrypt implementation in Internet.
In many applications, frameworks and tools, Scrypt encrypted passwords are stored together with the algorithm settings and salt, into a single string (in certain format), consisting of several parts, separated by
$character. For example, the password
[email protected]~123can be stored in the Scrypt standard format like this (several examples are given, to make the pattern apparent):
When configured properly Scrypt is considered a highly secure KDF function, so you can use it as general purpose password to key derivation algorithm, e.g. when encrypting wallets, files or app passwords.